The Vacuum Tube’s Forgotten Rival

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In the course of the Second World Conflict, the German army developed what had been on the time some very refined applied sciences, together with the
V-2 rockets it used to rain destruction on London. But the V-2, together with a lot different German army {hardware}, relied on an obscure and seemingly antiquated part you’ve in all probability by no means heard of, one thing known as the magnetic amplifier or magazine amp.

In america, magazine amps had lengthy been thought of out of date—“too gradual, cumbersome, and inefficient to be taken significantly,” in accordance with one supply. So U.S. military-electronics consultants of that period had been baffled by the in depth German use of this gadget, which they first realized about from interrogating German prisoners of conflict. What did the Third Reich’s engineers know that had eluded the Individuals?

After the conflict, U.S. intelligence officers scoured Germany for helpful scientific and technical data. 4 hundred consultants sifted by way of billions of pages of paperwork and shipped 3.5 million microfilmed pages again to america, together with virtually 200 tonnes of German industrial gear. Amongst this mass of data and gear was the key of Germany’s magnetic amplifiers: metallic alloys that made these gadgets compact, environment friendly, and dependable.

U.S. engineers had been quickly capable of reproduce these alloys. Consequently, the Nineteen Fifties and ’60s noticed a renaissance for magnetic amplifiers, throughout which they had been used extensively within the army, aerospace, and different industries. They even appeared in some early solid-state digital computer systems earlier than giving means totally to transistors. These days, that historical past is all however forgotten. So right here I’ll provide the little-known story of the magazine amp.

An amplifier, by
definition, is a tool that enables a small sign to regulate a bigger one. An old style triode vacuum tube does that utilizing a voltage utilized to its grid electrode. A contemporary field-effect transistor does it utilizing a voltage utilized to its gate. The magazine amp workouts management electromagnetically.

To know the way it works, first contemplate a easy inductor, say, a wire coiled round an iron rod. Such an inductor will have a tendency to dam the stream of alternating present by way of the wire. That’s as a result of when present flows, the coil creates an alternating magnetic area, concentrated within the iron rod. And that various magnetic area induces voltages within the wire that act to oppose the alternating present that created the sphere within the first place.

If such an inductor carries plenty of present, the rod can attain a state known as saturation, whereby the iron can not change into any extra magnetized than it already is. When that occurs, present passes by way of the coil just about unimpeded. Saturation is normally undesirable, however the magazine amp exploits this impact.

Bodily, a magnetic amplifier is constructed round a metallic core of fabric that may simply be saturated, usually a hoop or sq. loop with a wire wrapped round it. A second wire additionally wrapped across the core varieties a management winding. The management winding contains many turns of wire, so by passing a comparatively small direct present by way of it, the iron core might be pressured into or out of saturation.

The magazine amp thus behaves like a change: When saturated, it lets the AC present in its fundamental winding move unimpeded; when unsaturated, it blocks that present. Amplification happens as a result of a comparatively small DC management present can modify a a lot bigger AC load present.

The historical past of magnetic amplifiers begins in america with some patents filed in 1901. By 1916, giant magnetic amplifiers had been getting used for transatlantic radio telephony, carried out with an invention known as an
Alexanderson alternator, which produced a high-power, high-frequency alternating present for the radio transmitter. A magnetic amplifier modulated the output of the transmitter in accordance with the energy of the voice sign to be transmitted.

One Navy coaching handbook of 1951 defined magnetic amplifiers intimately—though with a defensive perspective about their historical past.

Within the Nineteen Twenties, enhancements in vacuum tubes made this mix of Alexanderson alternator and magnetic amplifier out of date. This left the magnetic amplifier to play solely minor roles, resembling for gentle dimmers in theaters.

Germany’s later successes with magnetic amplifiers hinged largely on the event of superior magnetic alloys. A magnetic amplifier constructed from these supplies switched sharply between the on and off states, offering better management and effectivity. These supplies had been, nevertheless, exquisitely delicate to impurities, variations in crystal measurement and orientation, and even mechanical stress. In order that they required an exacting manufacturing course of.

The most effective-performing German materials, developed in 1943, was known as Permenorm 5000-Z. It was a particularly pure fifty/fifty nickel-iron alloy, melted below a partial vacuum. The metallic was then cold-rolled as skinny as paper and wound round a nonmagnetic type. The consequence resembled a roll of tape, with skinny Permenorm metallic making up the tape. After winding, the module was annealed in hydrogen at 1,100 °C for two hours after which quickly cooled. This course of oriented the metallic crystals in order that they behaved like one giant crystal with uniform properties. Solely after this was performed had been wires wrapped across the core.

By 1948, scientists on the U.S.
Naval Ordnance Laboratory, in Maryland, had discovered how you can manufacture this alloy, which was quickly marketed by an outfit called Arnold Engineering Co. below the identify Deltamax. The arrival of this magnetic materials in america led to renewed enthusiasm for magnetic amplifiers, which tolerated excessive situations and didn’t burn out like vacuum tubes. Magazine amps thus discovered many purposes in demanding environments, particularly army, house, and industrial management.

In the course of the Nineteen Fifties, the U.S. army was utilizing magnetic amplifiers in computerized pilots, fire-control equipment, servo techniques, radar and sonar gear, the
RIM-2 Terrier surface-to-air missile, and lots of different roles. One Navy training manual of 1951 defined magnetic amplifiers intimately—though with a defensive perspective about their historical past: “Many engineers are below the impression that the Germans invented the magnetic amplifier; truly it’s an American invention. The Germans merely took our comparatively crude gadget, improved the effectivity and response time, decreased weight and bulk, broadened its area of utility, and handed it again to us.”

The U.S. house program additionally made in depth use of magnetic amplifiers due to their reliability. For instance, the
Redstone rocket, which launched Alan Shepard into house in 1961, used magnetic amplifiers. Within the Apollo missions to the moon throughout the Sixties and ’70s, magnetic amplifiers managed energy provides and fan blowers. Satellites of that period used magnetic amplifiers for sign conditioning, for present sensing and limiting, and for telemetry. Even the house shuttle used magnetic amplifiers to dim its fluorescent lights.

The image shows a Redstone rocket at the launch pad, with three space-suit-wearing astronauts in the foreground.Magnetic amplifiers had been additionally utilized in Redstone rockets, just like the one proven right here behind astronauts John Glenn, Virgil Grissom, and Alan Shepard.Common Pictures Group/Getty Pictures

Magnetic amplifiers additionally discovered heavy use in industrial management and automation, with many merchandise containing them being marketed below such model names as Common Electrical’s
Amplistat, CGS Laboratories’ Increductor, Westinghouse’s Cypak (cybernetic bundle), and Librascope’s Unidec (common choice factor).

The magnetic supplies developed in Germany throughout the Second World Conflict had their largest postwar influence of all, although, on the pc business. Within the late Forties, researchers instantly acknowledged the power of the brand new magnetic supplies to retailer knowledge. A round magnetic core could possibly be magnetized counterclockwise or clockwise, storing a 0 or a 1. Having what’s referred to as a rectangular hysteresis loop ensured that the fabric would keep solidly magnetized in one in every of these states after energy was eliminated.

Researchers quickly constructed what was known as core reminiscence from dense grids of magnetic cores. And these technologists quickly switched from utilizing wound-metal cores to cores constructed from ferrite, a ceramic materials containing iron oxide. By the mid-Sixties, ferrite cores had been stamped out by the billions as manufacturing prices dropped to a fraction of a cent per core.

However core reminiscence isn’t the one place the place magnetic supplies had an affect on early digital computer systems. The primary technology of these machines, beginning within the Forties, computed utilizing vacuum tubes. These had been changed within the late Nineteen Fifties with a second technology based mostly on transistors, adopted by third-generation computer systems constructed from built-in circuits.

Transistors weren’t an apparent winner for early computer systems, and lots of different options had been developed, together with magnetic amplifiers.

However technological progress in computing wasn’t, actually, this linear. Early transistors weren’t an apparent winner, and lots of different options had been developed. Magnetic amplifiers had been one in every of a number of largely forgotten computing applied sciences that fell between the generations.

That’s as a result of researchers within the early Nineteen Fifties realized that magnetic cores couldn’t solely maintain knowledge but additionally carry out logic features. By placing a number of windings round a core, inputs could possibly be mixed. A winding in the other way may inhibit different inputs, for instance. Complicated logic circuits could possibly be applied by connecting such cores collectively in numerous preparations.

In 1956, the
Sperry Rand Co. developed a high-speed magnetic amplifier known as the Ferractor, able to working at a number of megahertz. Every Ferractor was constructed by winding a dozen wraps of one-eighth-mil (about 3 micrometers) Permalloy tape round a 0.1-inch (2.5-mm) nonmagnetic stainless-steel bobbin.

The Ferractor’s efficiency was because of the exceptional thinness of this tape together with the tiny dimensions of the bobbin. Sperry Rand used the Ferractor in a army laptop known as the Univac Magnetic Laptop, often known as the Air Drive Cambridge Analysis Middle (AFCRC) laptop. This machine contained 1,500 Ferractors and 9,000 germanium diodes, in addition to a couple of transistors and vacuum tubes.

Sperry Rand later created enterprise computer systems based mostly on the AFCRC laptop: the
Univac Solid State (identified in Europe because the Univac Calculating Tabulator) adopted by the cheaper STEP (Easy Transition Digital Processing) laptop. Though the Univac Strong State did not fully reside as much as its identify—its processor used 20 vacuum tubes—it was reasonably well-liked, with lots of bought.

One other division of Sperry Rand constructed a pc known as
Bogart to assist with codebreaking on the U.S. Nationwide Safety Company. Followers of Casablanca and Key Largo will probably be dissatisfied to be taught that this laptop was named after the well-known New York Solar editor John Bogart. This comparatively small laptop earned that identify as a result of it edited cryptographic knowledge earlier than it was processed by the NSA’s bigger computer systems.

5 Bogart computer systems had been delivered to the NSA between 1957 and 1959. They employed a novel magnetic-amplifier circuit designed by
Seymour Cray, who later created the well-known Cray supercomputers. Reportedly, out of his dozens of patents, Cray was most proud of his magnetic-amplifier design.

Computer systems based mostly on magnetic amplifiers didn’t all the time work out so nicely, although. For instance, within the early Nineteen Fifties, Swedish billionaire industrialist
Axel Wenner-Gren created a line of vacuum-tube computer systems, known as the ALWAC (Axel L. Wenner-Gren Computerized Laptop). In 1956, he informed the U.S. Federal Reserve Board that he may ship a magnetic-amplifier model, the ALWAC 800, in 15 months. After the Federal Reserve Board paid US $231,800, growth of the pc bumped into engineering difficulties, and the mission led to complete failure.

Advances in transistors throughout the Nineteen Fifties led, in fact, to the decline of computer systems utilizing magnetic amplifiers. However for a time, it wasn’t clear which expertise was superior. Within the mid-Nineteen Fifties, for instance, Sperry Rand was debating between magnetic amplifiers and transistors for the
Athena, a 24-bit laptop to regulate the Titan nuclear missile. Cray constructed two equal computer systems to match the applied sciences head-to-head: the Magstec (magnetic change take a look at laptop) used magnetic amplifiers, whereas the Transtec (transistor take a look at laptop) used transistors. Though the Magstec carried out barely higher, it was changing into clear that transistors had been the wave of the long run. So Sperry Rand constructed the Univac Athena laptop from transistors, relegating magazine amps to minor features inside the pc’s energy provide.

In Europe, too, the transistor was battling it out with the magnetic amplifier. For instance, engineers at Ferranti, in the UK, developed magneticamplifier circuits for his or her computer systems. However they discovered that transistors supplied extra dependable amplification, in order that they changed the magnetic amplifier with a transformer along with a transistor. They known as this circuit the Neuron as a result of it produced an output if the inputs exceeded a threshold, analogous to a organic neuron. The Neuron grew to become the center of Ferranti’s Sirius and Orion enterprise computer systems.

One other instance is the Polish EMAL-2 laptop of 1958, which used magnetic-core logic together with 100 vacuum tubes. This 34-bit laptop was Poland’s first actually productive digital laptop. It was compact however gradual, performing solely 150 or so operations per second.

And within the Soviet Union, the 15-bit LEM-1 computer from 1954 used 3,000 ferrite logical parts (together with 16,000 selenium diodes). It may carry out 1,200 additions per second.

In France, magnetic amplifiers had been used within the
CAB 500 (Calculatrice Arithmétique Binaire 500), bought in 1960 for scientific and technical use by an organization known as Société d’Electronique et d’Automatisme (SEA). This 32-bit desk-size laptop used a magnetic logic factor known as the Symmag, together with transistors and a vacuum-tube energy provide. In addition to being programmed in Fortran, Algol, or SEA’s personal language, PAF (Programmation Automatique des Formules), the CAB 500 could possibly be used as a desk calculator.

Some computer systems of this period used multiaperture cores with advanced shapes to implement logic features. In 1959, engineers at Bell Laboratories developed a ladder-shaped magnetic factor known as
the Laddic, which applied logic features by sending indicators round completely different “rungs.” This gadget was later utilized in some nuclear-reactor security techniques.

One other method alongside these traces was one thing known as the
Biax logic element—a ferrite dice with holes alongside two axes. One other was dubbed the transfluxor, which had two round openings. Round 1961, engineers on the Stanford Analysis Institute constructed the all-magnetic logic computer for the U.S. Air Drive utilizing such multi-aperture magnetic gadgets. Doug Engelbart, who famously went on to invent the mouse and far of the fashionable laptop person interface, was a key engineer on this laptop.

Some computer systems of the time used transistors together with magnetic cores. The concept was to attenuate the variety of then-expensive transistors. This method, known as core transistor logic (CTL), was used within the British
Elliott 803 laptop, a small system launched in 1959 with an uncommon 39-bit phrase size. The Burroughs D210 magnetic laptop of 1960, a compact laptop of simply 35 kilos (about 16 kilograms) designed for aerospace purposes, additionally used core-transistor logic.

Core-transistor logic was significantly well-liked for house purposes. An organization known as Di/An Controls produced a line of logic circuits and claimed that “most house automobiles are filled with them.” The corporate’s Pico-Bit was a competing core-transistor-logic product, marketed in 1964 as “Your finest bit in house.” Early prototypes of NASA’s
Apollo Guidance Computer had been constructed with core transistor logic, however in 1962 the designers at MIT made a dangerous change to built-in circuits.

Even some “absolutely transistorized” computer systems made use of magnetic amplifiers right here and there. The MIT
TX-2 of 1958 used them to regulate its tape-drive motors, whereas the IBM 7090, launched in 1959, and the favored IBM System/360 mainframes, launched in 1964, used magnetic amplifiers to manage their energy provides. Management Knowledge Corp.’s 160 minicomputer of 1960 used a magnetic amplifier in its console typewriter. Magnetic amplifiers had been too gradual for the logic circuits within the Univac LARC supercomputer of 1960, however they had been used to drive its core reminiscence.

Within the Nineteen Fifties, engineers within the U.S. Navy had known as magnetic amplifiers “a rising star” and one in every of “the marvels of postwar electronics.” As late as 1957, greater than 400 engineers attended a convention on magnetic amplifiers. However curiosity in these gadgets steadily declined throughout the Sixties when transistors and different semiconductors took over.

But lengthy after everybody figured that these gadgets had been destined for the mud heap of historical past, magazine amps discovered a brand new utility. Within the mid-Nineties, the
ATX normal for private computer systems required a fastidiously regulated 3.3-volt energy provide. It turned out that magnetic amplifiers had been a reasonable but environment friendly strategy to management this voltage, making the magazine amp a key a part of most PC energy provides. As earlier than, this revival of magnetic amplifiers didn’t final: DC-DC regulators have largely changed magnetic amplifiers in fashionable energy provides.

All in all, the historical past of magnetic amplifiers spans a couple of century, with them changing into well-liked after which dying out a number of occasions. You’d be onerous pressed to discover a magazine amp in digital {hardware} produced at the moment, however possibly some new utility—maybe for quantum computing or wind generators or electrical automobiles—will breathe life into them but once more.

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